Distance Learning Ideas

During these different times, I’ve been planning for a new type of learning – distance learning – with little to no idea of how it might actually be implemented. As I plan, I thought there may be some who would find what I have done of value. I’m using this post to share some of the resources that I might use with students.

Language

Writing and Oral Communication

Persuasion is an art! To be able to develop a persuasive argument, you have to make sure that you have enough information to support your position on a matter. When you find topics that are of personal interest, people tend to have an opinion right away and can start to justify their thoughts. For this type of activity, I’m thinking of giving students one of the following prompts and asking them to come up with a persuasive argument including at least 3 supporting details for their opinion. Students can upload their arguments either in video or writing in a platform like Google Classroom and then they can possibly respond to each other’s arguments with counter-arguments. To extend this idea further, students can be grouped into teams based on their opinions and participate in a debate for or against the specific topic presented. 

Possible prompts:

  • When we start school again, we should have a 4-day school week. Do you agree or disagree?
  • During the pandemic, people have been using masks and gloves to move around the city. There is a shortage in hospitals. Should people donate their masks and gloves to hospitals?
  • When the pandemic is over, life will go back to being the way it was before. Do you agree or disagree?

Reading and Media Literacy

In our class, we’ve been reading and investigating non-fiction texts. Students were also in the process of writing their own themed magazines based on their own research on a topic. To continue with non-fiction reading, I thought it would be great to take some time to continue to read online magazines or texts. While reading, students can take notes of what they are learning using a graphic organizer like this one from Scholastic. This is just an elementary example but depending on what you are focused on, you can create your own for your students. From there, I thought that students could use what they have learned to create an infographic on a specific topic of interest. Keeping in mind that infographics have a visual component, students can use a tool like Google Drawings to create their own layout for their infographics. One online magazine that is now making all of its content free is Brainspace. There are a variety of topics that might be of interest to students. 

Math

I’ve found that hands-on activities have been the most well-received by my students and their families during this time. While there are a variety of Math games online – mPower, Math Playground, Prodigy, IXL – sometimes it’s nice to sit down and try an activity that allows you the opportunity to build critical thinking and problem-solving skills. There are so many different activities online but one that I quite like is from The Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing. Their printable activities for students in Grades 4 to 12 are fun and educational ways to do mathematics and computer science while at home practicing social distancing. The resources include games, new problems to solve, applications, videos, pointers to existing materials on their website. Once they have finished solving the problems with their families, students can share their solutions and strategies with each other online in writing or in a video, using a platform like Google Classroom.

Design Thinking

Students can use our current pandemic – Covid-19 – to design something totally new! This is a project that can be done over time and students can share what they have been working on in an online platform such as Google Classroom. At each stage of the process, they can share their work with the teacher or each other. 

Have students start by identifying problems that they are hearing about on the news or from online sources. They could write these on sticky notes, paper or using a tech tool. Teachers could use Padlet to create an online problem board for all students to include their ideas.  From there, students could potentially design an app or a solution that could connect community members as they are socially distancing themselves or something else that they have identified as a problem. The sky’s the limit! 

After researching and understanding the problem, students can pick one specific problem, and focus on how it is affecting a specific person (user). Here are 2 recent articles (International Covid-19 and Coronavirus Affecting the Way We Do Things) that they can use along with other online sources. 

Students can use this template – created in partnership with Smarter Science and the TDSB – to document their learning throughout the process. Once finished, students can create their own pitch for their idea, creating a short video or slide presentation for their peers.

These are just some of the ideas that I’m thinking about as we venture into this new type of learning next week. I’m not sure how it will go or what might work but I’m open to learning and trying something new. 

Math In Real Life – The Yard Problem

As a child, I loved Math.  Inherently, there was always something exciting about using what I knew to solve a problem. Whether through the use of a formula or by being able to apply a mathematical concept, for me the world of Mathematics was about finding answers. Now, sometimes it was a means to an end – OAC calculus for getting into my program in university, (aging myself there) – but often times I remember the feeling of accomplishment after solving a problem with one of my parents at the dinner table in the evenings. When I didn’t understand something, my parents always tried to make sense of it in a real-world way. Talking me through the problem or explaining it in a diagram. The more I think of it, I believe that those times have been a foundational part of who I have become as a teacher, as it relates to Mathematics. While there are so many different concepts to teach within the curriculum, I find myself more drawn to and excited about concepts that allow students to see their use in real life and I’m always on the hunt to try and find a real example for everything.

Last month, I wrote about our Chocolongo Challenge. This month, we were hard at work trying to solve the challenge of fencing at our school. As we continued our unit on Measurement, a real problem was identified and students began to use what they know and the tools we have at our disposal to design real solutions. 

Sloane Public School opens onto a large field with baseball diamonds and leads further to a trail and public park. On any given day, you can find people walking their dogs through the yard or just going for a stroll. Occasionally, kindergarten students get so excited about the wide-open space that they make a run for it, only to find a teacher running after them to bring them back. With this in mind, students were asked to consider which would be more cost-effective: fencing off the back of the school property or fencing a safer kindergarten area? 

To start this problem, we worked together to create a KWC Chart. Together, we determined what we knew; what we wanted to know; and the conditions in order to solve the problem. 

From there, using Google’s My Maps, students quickly got to work trying to figure out the length of fencing that they would need. Once they got an idea of the length, they were on a mission to find the pricing of different fencing options. It was pretty amazing to see the different solutions that started coming to life. Some thought of creating a whole new area for the kindergarten students while others thought we could use some of the equipment in our shed and build an enclosed space that would allow them the freedom to explore. Some students were really creative with the fencing and thought of using wood fencing with one side coated in chalkboard paint so that kindergarten students could colour and design.

Ultimately, many students thought it was more economical to fence off the back of the school property and allowed for less disruption of the other activities for older students – like soccer and football which take up a significant amount of space on the field. This week, we wrapped up our unit with presentations and it was fantastic to see that students had created their own slide presentations to use as proposals to support their solutions. Using some of the feedback from their presentations, students are eager to present their findings to the principal to see if their ideas can be brought to life for a safer school environment for all. 

Whenever I’ve introduced these real-world problems to students, they get really excited to solve the problem and consider ways in which they can have an impact on the whole school community. While this one question, that ultimately became a project took several weeks, I’m amazed at all of the learning that was involved. Students learned to:

  • use an online tool to accurately measure large distances;
  • compare numbers;
  • convert measurements;
  • multiply;
  • think empathetically as they worked to solve a problem for someone else;
  • explain their mathematical thinking;
  • prepare a proposal to present to their audience;
  • and so much more!

I’m always excited about real-world math ideas. Please feel free to share some of yours in the comments!

The Chocolongo Challenge

Every year, I somehow manage to incorporate my love of chocolate into an activity that I work on with students. This year was no different. As I skimmed through the Guide to Effective Instruction for Mathematics for some ideas for our unit on measurement, I noticed the Chocolongo Challenge and immediately knew that this sweet challenge would be exciting for all. Although it’s an activity for Grade 6 students, I made modifications and we got to exploring. 

After a bit of review about perimeter, area and volume, I asked students to consider the following question: A rectangle has an area of 24 square units, what is its perimeter? Students quickly got to work trying to figure out what the connection was between area and perimeter and came up with a few potential ideas. 

After a bit more practice with area and perimeter, we took things to the third dimension, volume! With linking cubes, students were given the chance to explore perimeter, surface area, total surface area and volume. When I knew that they were ready, the Chocolongo Challenge was presented and they were excited designers who were interested in solving a specific problem.

 

It was amazing to see how engaged students were when they felt as though they were solving a real problem. They started reflecting on packaging at home and thinking about the waste involved and ways in which we can bring about change for the environment. Some students also thought back to their design projects that they have been working on and wondered if there was a way to really bring about change in relation to the amount of packaging on products in stores.

 

We connected this activity to Media Literacy as students considered a target audience for their bars and came up with unique commercials to connect with their audience. From being more eco-friendly to having delicious ingredients, these students showed what they knew about measurement and media in an amazing way. These past 3 weeks have been my reminder of the importance of making sure that the learning in the classroom is hands-on, relevant and honours the creativity of students.

Hour of Code is Coming…Part 2

Last month I blogged about the Hour of Code which occurs during Computer Science Education Week. Little did I know that it would prompt further conversations geared around wondering whether or not an hour makes a difference. My post by no means was the be all and end all of coding or computational thinking but was meant to spark conversations, perhaps an interest and possibly support educators for whom coding or computational thinking might be new. To be clear, I know that coding for an hour during that week might not have a significant impact in the grand scheme of things, but the opportunities that it provided for my students certainly had a significant impact. While these opportunities should exist on a daily basis, let’s face it, weeks like this often allow for conversations amongst educators to be had and provide spaces for collaboration. This was the case for me and my students. 

I think that we sometimes forget that there is a continuum of learning – even for educators – and while everyone has strengths and areas of need, those strengths and areas of need vary from person to person. Unless we’re willing to start somewhere and be vulnerable with colleagues, we can miss out on the chance to learn with incredible colleagues. This year, my students had the chance to participate in coding activities with 3 other classes and for them, it was an exercise in developing greater empathy; growing in clear communication; and problem solving. At the end of the week, coding was the tool that facilitated this learning for my students and they were able to help younger students develop their own set of problem solving and computational skills. 

That being said, this post, (part 2) is really to go a little deeper into what I believe computational thinking is about. I’ve always seen coding as being one, creative way to helping students develop computational thinking skills. I’ve learned that computational thinking is about solving problems, using similar methods as would a computer. There are four kills that make up computational thinking:

  1. Algorithmic Thinking – using algorithms to show the different steps in a solution or process. This can be applied across subject areas and can help to outline the process by which something is accomplished. When students are using some of the coding activities mentioned in my previous post, they are thinking about the steps needed to move through a maze or a specific sequence to achieve a goal. In language, students are often taught procedural writing. These procedures are used in recipes and in instruction manuals. In Science, we can think of this as the execution of an experiment. While students have the opportunity to hypothesize based on what they know, they may be required to follow procedures as they gain new skills for their experiment. Again, it’s that specific sequence of events that needs to take place to accomplish a task. 
  2. Decomposition – the breaking down of big problems into smaller ones. When broken down into smaller parts, tasks become less daunting. With large projects, when students can solve one task at a time, they’re better able to achieve success with the overall project. Knowing how to break down big challenges into smaller, more manageable parts is really a skill. When we help students in this, they are better able to become more autonomous, knowing specifically the next step that they need to take in order to succeed. During our coding activities, Code.org’s Dance Party was a hit! As students navigated through the challenges, they realized that they were gaining the skills required to ultimately create their own dance sequence. When they got to the end, they understood the functions of all of the blocks and were really excited to create and I must say that a few even replicated their dances in small groups.  
  3. Abstraction – the idea of using a simple model to explain more complicated systems. By taking away minute details, we are more easily able to understand the overall concept by making sense of the important parts in the model before us. I often think of this as making things more concrete before moving into the abstract. We can do this for ourselves when planning a unit. It might be daunting to understand all of what has to be taught but if we think first about the big ideas, we can then understand what is most important for students to understand and work backwards from there.  When we were working on coding activities with the kindergarten students, it was amazing to see how my students were helping students to physically move around the space in order to understand direction. When you first gain a grasp of direction and understand it clearly, perhaps moving around the physical space is no longer needed as much and you can move onto other skills, as you learn.
  4. Pattern Recognition – helps determine probability by interpreting data & identifying patterns. Scientists are recognizing patterns and are able to more effectively predict outcomes for things like diseases and weather. Why not get students identifying patterns in everyday life and see what they might be able to make sense of in the world. In my teaching practice, I have found Math so much more meaningful to students when they are able to see and identify the concepts being taught in real life. By looking at patterns, they understand and can identify why some structures might be more stable than others and can make more accurate predictions based on data they have collected. Lightbot was one of the activities we tried with younger students and it was a great way for my students to help the younger students to see that by creating a program once, they could repeat it and it was similar to the core in a repeating pattern. It took us a minute but it was amazing when the “ah ha” moments came.  

As with all things, I am growing in my understanding of computational thinking and coding. My first post was merely a conversation – and perhaps an activity – starter as we think about helping students to develop these skills. Doing or looking to do amazing things in your classroom in this area? Please share it in the comments! I would love to know more and grow with you.

Learning From & With Students

Student-led clubs are amazing! My question with trying to give space for students to truly lead has always been, how do we start? From there I start to ask: How do we determine what might be of interest? Who is the club truly for? How do we gage its level of success? The list really could go on as I sit and think it through. What sometimes happens is a club that is so “scaffolded” that it really isn’t student-led.

As you may already know, I am new to my school community this year. With that in mind, I’ve been making efforts to understand more about the lives and experiences of those within.  In this work, I’m really trying to ensure that students see themselves represented in what we do in school. After speaking with my principal, we thought of creating a space or club related to culture, where students were the ones organizing some of our school events and celebrations. Unsure of who might be interested or if it would truly be of value to our community, I wrote out an announcement inviting students to attend a brief meeting to chat and I was blown away by the response.  Overwhelmingly, students were interested in having their voices heard and leading the way in helping our school in being a more inclusive place. 

Now I know that we have to go beyond cuisine, celebrations and clothing when really digging in and understanding diversity and I hope that this group is a place where those real conversations can start. We recently voted on a name for our group – the Diversity Club – and we’re hard at work planning out a winter celebration for families. The idea being that we plan an evening where families can come into the school, learn about diverse cultures through hands-on activities and conversations with each other. Students have chosen 5 celebrations that are happening over the next month and will lead activities that evening so that families understand these days of significance in a deeper way. 

We’ve only just begun and it’s really great to see how enthusiastic students are in wanting to share who they are with others. I love how once given space and time, students feel a sense of freedom and ownership and are going well beyond what I could have imagined. Our Slone Celebrations Night is a couple of weeks away and I’m so excited to continue to facilitate this club as students continue to put their mark on our school and make it truly the hub of the community that it should be.

Halloween learning opportunity

During the past few weeks, my students have been writing short scary stories. They have been working in groups to create stories with creative characters, a strong plot and a problem that arises in their story. 

About a month ago, my students were thinking hard to plan for our first drama task of the year. Knowing Halloween was at the end of the month, they wanted to plan a Halloween task. They wanted to have some sort of haunted house that would involve all of the grade eight students. Unfortunately that wasn’t able to happen, but for the 30 students that did participate, they worked well to create an exciting final product. 

With my students help, what we ended up deciding on was that each scary short story would be performed in our class in the haunted house. We would present our scary short stories. Five stories ended up being brought to life. Each story had unique characters, a unique stage, audience setup and music soundtrack. For that reason, students who did not want to act helped in other ways such as stage crew, music creator or class collector. This short story project ended up turning into a show for six classes to view. 

Students decorated the room to their liking the day before towards the end of the day. They worked hard to set up a spooky setup that would work for everyone. A student in my colleagues class donated decorations for the entire project and the students had fun setting them up. A few days prior to decorating, two of my students went around to the grade five and six teachers and asked them to sign up for a viewing time. The classes would come on October 30th to view the five shows. 

The performances went very well! Students were evaluated on the writing of their stories for literacy as well as many drama expectations for their performances. They were marked on their ability to plan and shape the drama throughout their many performances and were also evaluated based on their ability to use the elements of drama. They did an amazing job telling each of their created stories to their peers. 

It was great to see such collaboration for this project as many students invited other actors into their group as they enjoyed writing a story that would include as many as up to ten actors. They let students audition for the part and then the show became their own as well. Teachers complimented the students on their amazing show creation and very well written stories. The kids had a great time and are excited to try something like this again during the winter holidays. I am so proud of my students for their collaboration skills during this project and their ability to take on such a large task. I am excited for their next opportunity to showcase their incredible leadership abilities and their group work skills. 

Artificial Intelligence

Have you ever been looking at something on Amazon and then see advertisements for that exact product on your Facebook feed?  Do you ever think about how “suggestions for you” on your Kindle or Netflix make it incredibly easy to click on the next book or t.v. series?  These are little ways in which artificial intelligence is becoming a normal every day occurrence in our every day lives and we don’t even realize it and we also need to make our students aware of it too.

According to research, scientists are far away from the C3PO kind of artificial intelligence but the reality about A.I. being a part of our world is far from Science Fiction.   I firmly believe that teaching students how to think critically about how artificial intelligence works is important.  Recently I was a part of a workshop with Microsoft and Kids Code Jeunesse in which we explored some of the pros and cons of A.I. in general and then specifically in education. We need to have these serious, ethical discussions with our students so that they are aware of the implications of a world with A.I.  Those recommendations that are computer generated may be helpful or they may narrow your experiences.  Just because I like historical drama doesn’t mean I don’t want to also watch romantic comedies.  However, until I watch a few, those don’t come up in my Netflix recommendations.  The narrowing of choice can save money for companies too.  See where I’m going with the moral implications?  So…how do we have this discussion with students in a way that they can understand?  Inquiry.

During the workshop we used The Teachable Machine which is an online program designed to demonstrate how machines can learn.   It is an effective tool to show that the more data that is entered, the more accurate the outcome. If you have a moment to look up the Google image for “Blueberry Muffins and Chihuahuas” you’ll understand what I mean.  Microsoft has been working with educators to help foster an understanding of artificial intelligence and bring that awareness to students.  On their website they have a number of experiments that you can take your students through in order to experience artificial intelligence at work:  Experience A.I.  As students use software such as predictive text, Google Read and Write or even chatbots for frequently asked questions, challenge them to ask the questions of how does this work?

Teaching digital citizenship and critical thinking needs to be a constant discussion, not a one and done lesson.  Students need to generate questions and explore how to find the answers with guidance from their teacher.  I think it is also important to highlight that A.I. might be a scary thing for some students so they need to be aware that although there are skills that humans and machines share, the machines do not learn those skills without the input of a human.  Machines cannot replace the empathy, creativity, communication and relationship building capability of humans.  They also cannot replace the understanding and caring of an effective teacher.

Fore more reading on the subject of Artificial Intelligence in Education:

Ryan M Cameron, A.I. 101 A Primer on Using Artificial Intelligence in Education

Wayne Holmes, Maya Bialik, Charles Fadel, Artificial Intelligence in Education:Promises and Implications for Teaching and Learning

Orange Shirt Day

Orange Shirt Day is tomorrow – September 30th! While I strongly believe conversations around reconciliation between non-Indigenous and Indigenous peoples need to happen on a daily basis, Orange Shirt Day provides an opportunity for action and awareness.  In this post, I’ll be sharing a couple activities we have done this year and how we will be continuing to learn about reconciliation. 

Based on the life of Jenny Kay Dupuis’ grandmother, I Am Not a Number is a powerful book that brings to light a part of Canada’s history and its treatment of Indigenous children and families. It’s a text that I have read with students over the past few years that has helped my students understand the impacts of residential schools not only on those who attended but also the impacts over subsequent generations. 

Every year, I think about how to use the text in different ways and this year our pre-reading activities were inspired by an educator in London, Graham Shular. For our activity, small groups of 3 or 4 students were given an image from the book that was glued to a piece of chart paper that was sectioned off into 4 parts. Students were asked to write down their answers to one of the following in each of the sections:

  1. What do you notice?
  2. What emotions does the image evoke?
  3. What do you think is happening?
  4. Why do you think that is happening?

 The groups were given 4 minutes to first take a look at the image and then they were given 4 minutes to discuss and jot down their ideas on the chart paper for each question. 

 

I was amazed at how engaged students were in the task, as was another colleague, Alison Fitzsimmons, who also did a similar activity with the students in her class. This activity was a great way for me to see what students already knew about residential schools and it was also helpful in understanding what messages students were getting in the imagery of the book.

Later, as we read, students were given large sticky notes and asked to jot down their wonders, questions and anything of impact as we read. Many were surprised at the treatment of Indigenous children and their families and that it was imposed and sanctioned by the Canadian Government. This prompted many to think about what we can currently do to ensure true reconciliation. While I want students to gain a great sense of empathy, I also want them to understand the resilience of those impacted and the rich history of Indigenous peoples over time. 

Tomorrow, we will be starting to look at our Land Acknowledgement. Said every morning during the announcements, students need to understand its significance and the people on whose land we have the privilege of learning. I am looking forward to us digging in to better understand treaties and the diverse communities of Indigenous peoples. 

Tomorrow is Orange Shirt Day. Will you be wearing orange? What activities have you done with students? What work might we continue to do to ensure true action around reconciliation? ETFO has incredible resources to get you started. Click here to find them!

Collaborative Inquiry Celebration

The other day, many teachers from across my school board gathered together to share with other educators how their year long inquiry project went. As I have mentioned in previous posts, mine was about starting our own business as a class and inspiring my students through leadership. I shared with the other educators these successful stories from our project “8A TREATS”:

  • how many of my less successful students with traditional subjects have been excelling during this project
  • the success my students had with gathering data from classes around the school
  • collecting permission forms from the entire school
  • advertising by making imovies, posters and using a dinosaur mascot to travel around with a fake smoothie
  • tallying the smoothie results for flavours and sizes with spreadsheets
  • counting and tracking the money with spreadsheets
  • find and then order paper straws from Amazon to be environmentally friendly
  • working with a budget that was donated from the student success foundation
  • designing logos as a class, voting on the best one and then collaborating with a clothing design company to recreate this on their products
  • painting and creating a wall in our classroom that will be the location behind our brand
  • creating a video to explain the project as well as talk about our favourite parts

Image-21    (<<<our student create wall)

 

Our next steps with our project:

  • doing the math to find out how much of each ingredient we will now (plus extra) to make the smoothies
  • ordering the cups
  • setting up our classroom as a pop-up smoothie store
  • making 340+ smoothies on June 6th with our 22 students

It was very exciting sharing this project with my fellow educators. My students were very excited knowing that this project was shared with other teachers. They were proud when I told them how excited other teachers were to find out about this student centered initiative.

There were other educators who shared exciting inquiry projects:

  1. My colleague Lydia shared about her “Community Helpers” project where her grade one students inquired in various ways about the many community helpers in our neighbourhood. She had a guest police officer come by as well as had the students use their hands to explore various jobs. They were able to build, play with food as well as research all of the jobs available to them. The final touch was when my grade eight class came to help them put their thoughts together in an inquiry package. It was great to see her students so passionate about their future. To find out about her project, you can visit her twitter account @AppolonialydiaL. You can also view her project on this link <iframe class=”wp-block-mexp-vimeo hwdsb-tv” src=”//hwdsb.tv/media/grade-one-collaborative-inquiry-2019/?embed=true” width=”560″ height=”315″ frameborder=”0″ allowfullscreen></iframe>
  2. Teachers used a choice board to give students options when creating or completing tasks. These boards are made in collaboration with the teacher at the beginning of the year to go over all of the ways that presenting or completing every day tasks can be done that year. Apps are explored and used in new and innovative ways. I cannot wait to create a choice board in my literacy class next year. There was also a SAMR model student choice matrix that was introduced to us. It’s not the app that makes the project/task, it is how it’s used.
  3. I also heard about makerspaces from one of my other colleagues Cara. She introduces these daily in her library and students are able to create very interesting projects from her instruction cards set up at the tables. They are always able to be creative, explore and build in her library. They also explore media literacy during these creative library sessions.

There were many other projects I could not get to since we only had a half hour to explore and the other half hour was to share about our own projects. Some other apps worth checking out are: seesaw, read&write, book creator, keynote, canva, geogebra, TC studio and pear deck.

 

 

The Gender Gap in Technology

Quote for blog

According to a recent report* by ICTC (the Information and Technology Information Council) Canadian women represent about 50% of the overall workforce but represent only 25% of the technology industry workforce.  Of the 100 major tech companies in Canada only 5 have female CEOs and 1 Co-CEO.   26% of the tech companies have no women in senior leadership at all.  There is a gender wage gap in the industry of $7,000-$20,00 per year.  When I read these statistics I wondered as educators, what can we do about the gender gap in technology?  This is not an exhaustive list, but it is a place to begin:

1.  Build her confidence in her abilities.

2. Cultivate a community of supportive peers.

3.  Provide a STEM/STEAM club for girls.

4. Ensure that access to technology and computer experiences is encouraged and inclusive.

5. Foster interest in computing careers.

6. Be a role model as a LEARNER.

May 11th is National Girls Learning Code Day.  If you are looking to encourage coders in your school, why not begin on May 11th?  Below you will find links to resources for beginning coding.  Many students code on their own at home and may appreciate the opportunity to mentor fellow students.  The resources attached will get you started.  There is no special equipment or robotics required.  Teachers do not have to be expert coders to encourage their students.  Teachers can be role models of resilience, risk taking and problem solving by learning alongside their students.  Teachers only need to open the door and expose their students to the opportunities.

Girls Who Code Canada

National Girls Learn Code Day

Canada Learning Code

Scratch

Hour of Code

Code.org

 

*Cutean, A., Ivus, M. (2017). The Digital Talent Dividend: Shifting Gears in a Changing Economy. Information and Communications Technology Council (ICTC). Ottawa, Canada.

Elaborated and written by Alexandra Cutean (Director, Digital Innovation Research and Policy). and Maryna Ivus (Senior Analyst, Research and Policy) with generous support from the ICTC Research and Policy Team.